The mastitis in cows is quite common disease encountered in the dairy cattle, where there is an absence of mastitis control program in the herd of cows. It is observed that almost 40% of the cows get infected with mastitis causing tremendous loss estimated at $200 per cow per annum besides the loss in the milk production, which is around 70% milk in the cattle affected with mastitis in cows.
The cause of mastitis in cows is as the result of inflammation in the udder tissue caused by any factors like bacterial infestation or mechanical injuries and any contact with harmful chemical. In response to the inflammation, there are enhanced blood proteins and white blood cells noticed in the breast tissue and the milk produced.
The objective when mastitis occurs is to eliminate the cause of irritation and undertake treatment to repair the tissue damage occurred so that the normal activity can be restored fast.
The symptoms of mastitis in cows & tissue changes:
Inflammation of the udder brings about abnormalities resulting in the symptoms of localized pain, hot feeling and appearance turning red. The persistence of the inflammation is the cause of tissue damage, which is followed, by replacement of tissue involved in secretion of milk with connective tissue increasing the non-productive area of the breast which is responsible for lesser milk yield in comparison to milk yield of normal breast. The quality of the milk also gets affected.
Mastitis in cows development:
The beginning of mastitis is marked with bacteria passing through teat milk duct and its entry in the cisternal region. The bacteria has a tendency to invade the breast while the milking activity is in progress due to entry of the air in the milking unit, which is not desired. After milking activity, normally the teats dilation ends after one to two hours, whereas the damaged teat continues to remain open partially throughout, enabling the bacteria to enter conveniently in the teat’s milk canal.
The bacterial growth sticks to cisterns and the milk ducts lining becoming the cause of prevention to the milk getting flushed while milking is done. The next movement of the bacteria is to the glandular tissue affecting alveolar cells. Bacteria’s toxins are harmful damaging of the tissue or making it dead.
As an effect of the toxins generated by bacteria, there is harm to the epithelial cells responsible for milk secretion to the extent making these cells dead. In response to this, there is increased permeability of the blood vessels to enable access to the leucocytes from the blood to the affected alveolus for performance microphage action needed.
Types of mastitis in cows:
Although mastitis can be classified differently in a number of ways, the very simple way divides mastitis in two clearly demarcated groups:
The contagious mastitis type: This type of mastitis occurs through bacteria living on the teat’s skin internal area of the udder and has the capability of transmission among cows being milked.
The environmental mastitis: Its cause is by Escherichia coli bacteria not living on the skin or in tissues of udder. It accesses entrance from the teat canal when cow is exposed to the environment which is highly contaminated with the bacteria presence. This bacterium grows on the cattle bedding contaminated with feces and animal feed getting nutrition to grow. Not more than 10% of all the mastitis cases are caused by Escherichia coli.
The various species of bacteria like Streptococcus agalactia and Staphylococcus aureus are highly involved when mastitis in cows is affected.
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